The Strange Story of a Sea Star’s Suppertime

sea star

Sea stars use an unusual method to digest their meals. (Photo credit: Photodisc/Getty Images)

Have you ever ridden a rollercoaster? If so, you probably well remember the feeling of that first, big drop. Many describe the sensation as feeling like my stomach fell out of my body. [Read more…]

When Injured, the Moon Jellyfish Doesn’t Repair. It Recycles!

moon jellyfish

Moon jellyfish possess a unique mechanism for self-repair. (Photo credit: Byba Sepit/Moment/Getty Images)

The moon jellyfish is a tough creature to figure out. For one, while experts argue that the species consists of numerous subspecies, it is nearly impossible to distinguish one from another without DNA testing, which leads other scientists to propose the distinction is meaningless. [Read more…]

Convinced Your Dog is Smart? You Might Be Right

guide dog

Humans have long recognized the alertness, trainability, and friendly temperament of many dog breeds and pressed them into service for such very personal tasks as serving as trusted guides for the visually impaired. New research out of Hungary shows that dogs may possess an even more beautiful mind the previously thought.(Photo credit: bobbymn/

If you have a dog, you probably think yours is the smartest dog in the world. New research from Hungary just may prove you’re correct. [Read more…]

A Mouse That Sings

singing mouse

The deer mouse is just one type of mouse that is known to sing. (Photo credit: Thomas Kitchin and Victoria Hurst/Design Pics Inc./Alamy)

You are likely quite familiar with the sound of birds singing. You might have also heard the sounds of frogs singing a chorus around a pond or lake. But did you know that some mice sing too? What is the reason behind this unusual behavior? [Read more…]

What Wombats Leave Behind


Wombats are furry marsupials endemic to Australia. (Photo credit: covenant/Shutterstock)

Let’s be honest, poop is kind of gross. It’s not something normally discussed in polite company. Yet, we can all agree it serves a purpose. Beyond the obvious purpose of eliminating wastes, what organisms excrete also can help both human and animal doctors diagnose illnesses and assess the general health of a patient. In the wild, “scat,” as it’s often referred to, has even greater significance. [Read more…]

The Curious Case of the Platypus

The platypus is native to Australia. (Photo Credit: Peter Scoones/Photo Researchers, Inc.)

The platypus is a curious animal. It has a bill like a duck, it produces milk and has fur like a mammal, and it lays eggs like a reptile. Scientists recently sequenced the entire genome of a platypus and discovered that its odd appearance is in fact a testament to its bird, reptile, and mammal ancestors. [Read more…]

The Science Behind an Airplane Meal’s Lackluster Flavor

airplane food

Don’t blame the airplane food — it’s your senses (or lack thereof) that make it taste so bland. (Photo credit: Alex Segre/Alamy)

Airline meals have long been maligned for their bland flavor and strange textures. It turns out that at least some of the blame lies in an airline passengers sense of taste. [Read more…]

What’s That Smell?

corpse flower

The corpse flower can sure raise a stink. (Photo credit: Isabelle OHara/Shutterstock)

Its aroma is likened to that of decaying flesh or rotting meat. All who have gotten a whiff firsthand agree it’s a scent you won’t soon forget.  [Read more…]

Sunk On Purpose

Did you know that the coastlines of the United States have become a dumping ground for old ships, subway cars, and tanks, among other things? Sounds like a major source of ocean pollution, right? Well, think again. All of these items have been placed onto the bottom of the ocean on purpose as a way to build up marine habitat.

The Adolphus Busch, a 210-foot cargo ship, was deliberately sunk in the Florida Keys to serve as an artificial reef. (Photo credit: Michael Patrick O’Neill/Alamy)

What Is an Artificial Reef?

Though exact definitions vary, according to the International Maritime Organization, an artificial reef refers to any submerged structure deliberately constructed or placed on the seabed to emulate some functions of a natural reef such as protecting, regenerating, concentrating, and/or enhancing populations of living marine resources. Some marine scientists also consider structures that are designed for other purposes–such as bridges, piers, and docks–to have the potential to be artificial reefs as well.

Though many states now regulate what can and cannot be used as an artificial reef, in previous years, there was a lot less regulation. This anything goes attitude led to a number of unfortunate projects, including the dumping of over 700,000 tires off the coast of Fort Lauderdale. Lauded as a way to both improve marine habitat and get rid of waste that would otherwise end up in a landfill, this ill begotten project continues to wreak havoc with the Florida coast today. Though the tires were strapped together, these straps were often no match for tropical storms, and many have since come apart. Tires can now roll freely along the ocean floor, destroying natural coral reefs. In addition, a number of tires end up as garbage on the beach after washing ashore. Marine scientists hope to learn from these past mistakes use these lessons as cautionary tales in the development of current artificial reef projects.

In recent years, a number of human-made items have been plunged to the bottom of the ocean. What exactly is down there? Artificial reefs are constructed of concrete slabs, small boats, aircraft carriers, subway cars, and tanks. Some artificial reefs are not made up of these re-purposed materials and are instead constructed especially for use as an artificial reef. Several companies make specialized structures specifically for use as an artificial reef. These structures vary in shape in size, and include mound, pyramid, and cube shapes.

Advantages of Artificial Reefs

Artificial reefs are often lauded as a means to not only increase habitat for fish and other marine species, but also as a way to boost the local economy. Unusual artificial reefs, such as sunken subway cars or ships, are quite popular destinations for recreational divers. Artificial reefs are also touted as excellent locations for sport fishing. For example, a study conducted in 2001 by researchers at the University of Florida IFAS Extension estimated that non-residents and tourists spent $1.7 billion annually on fishing and diving activities associated with artificial reefs in southeast Florida.

This structure was built specifically for use as an artificial reef. (Photo credit: Poelzer Wolfgang / Alamy)

Disadvantages of Artificial Reefs

However, not everyone is convinced that artificial reefs are a good thing. Some marine scientists are concerned that items pushed into the sea, even though thoroughly cleaned of grease and other potential contaminants beforehand, may still contribute to ocean pollution. The tire incident of the 1970s is a clear example that not everything is suitable to become an artificial reef. Conservationists also worry that instead of protecting marine species, such as ocean-dwelling fish, artificial reef just serve to draw populations away from their natural habitats, concentrating them around the artificial reef. This makes them easy pickings for sport fishers, and in no way abates the worry of the overfishing of the oceans. Another concern is the lack of federal regulations to oversee artificial reef programs around the United States. Currently, artificial reefs are managed on a state-by-state basis, and each state has a different set of criteria that they follow.

What Do You Think?

Clearly, there are many advantages and disadvantages to the use of artificial reefs. Where do you stand on the topic of artificial reefs? Do you think they are a good idea or a bad idea? Do the benefits of artificial reefs to a marine ecosystem and to the local economy outweigh their costs? Where do you stand?


Scientists Decode the Language of Prairie Dogs

prairie dogs

Prairie dogs have a more extensive language than previously thought. (Photo credit: Photodisc/Getty Images)

If you’ve ever walked through a prairie dog town, you probably heard the prairie dogs’ high-pitched alarm call. But did you ever think they were talking about you? Recent research indicates that just might be exactly what they were doing.

[Read more…]